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Certain very large or very heavy books will not be shipped. Visit Seller's Storefront Terms of Sale: We guarantee the condition of every book as it is described on the Abebooks web sites. More Information. Shipping Terms: Shipping is free within the U. Depending upon the position of the writer and his intended audiences, woman and women are discussed either as a problem for or boon to men. Teresa de Cartagena, the author of two spiritual treatises, is one of a small group of medieval Iberian women writers whose works have come down to us.
An educated woman who participated directly in the querella , she is an example of the distance between the cultural ideograms constructed by male authors in the debate and the experience of historical women. While the precise nature of her studies there is unknown, it was not uncommon for aristocratic women to be well educated at the time. The Arboleda de enfermos is a meditation on the spiritual value of suffering, in which Teresa describes how her own suffering from deafness imposed a beneficial, if painful, isolation upon her.
Although she wrote from the isolation of the convent and her deafness, the two treatises appear to have circulated among the same audiences that were the intended readership of the anti- and profeminine male-authored works discussed above. The sentimental romances thus weave the querella in to their interrogations of courtly love and explorations of the ideological conflicts inherent in the performance of masculinity and femininity.
La Madrina, who has consistently appealed to lived experience over authority, replies in her own defense that self-evident truths must not be denied The querella appears in both formal and allusive guises in the two romances, which stage the debates and their consequences in the courts of rulers conflicted by the mutually exclusive terms of love and justice, settings that must have clearly resonated with the political agenda of the Catholic Monarchs.
Leriano, a young nobleman is unable to be the recognized love-servant of the princess Laureola, who explains that, while she does not want him to die of lovesickness, cannot risk her honor by accepting his love. The courtship, such as it is, is carried out in a series of letters in which the querella is a clear intertextual reference. Fearing that she will be thought movible fickle , like so many women before her, Laureola writes in her final attempt to dissuade Leriano from dying of love, that his death will cause her to be the object of further criticism In her last letter to Leriano, Laureola also tries to put their relationship into a different courtly context, that of royal patronage.
Is Laureola a belle dame sans merci , who has cruelly caused the death of a valiant and nobleman, or is she the victim of a courtly code that damns her regardless of whether she unsubmissively protects her honor or acquiesces? The trial is ordered by a king who wishes to set a precedent after his council is unable to determine who to blame when the knight Grisel and the princess Mirabella are discovered in flagrante.
Consequently, women cannot force men to engage in sexual relations, while men can easily force women —, — As the powerless subjects of male control, she argues, women cannot be to blame if they are easily led to sin by men.
He adds that should women one day be freed from the restraints of shame, they would pursue and seduce men just as avidly as men do women, a vision that Flores develops in another romance that draws upon the querella , Triunfo de amor The Triumph of Love — Torrellas is declared the victor of the trial. Mirabella, and by extension, all women are condemned.
Both Grisel and Mirabella commit suicide: Grisel throws himself into the bonfire to save Mirabella from the death to which she is condemned, while Mirabella throws herself into a pit of lions, unable to face life without Grisel. Fifteenth-century writers enjoyed a veritable rhetorical arsenal of commonplaces for arguing, on the one hand, in the defense of women and, on the other, for proving the superiority of the male sex and the iniquity of women.
Cancionero poetry and the profeminine treatises written in the middle decades of the fifteenth-century, in turn, explore the rhetorical possibilities and the courtly posturing available to men arguing in the defense and defamation of women and love. Teresa de Cartagena took the challenge a step further by playing upon the difference between natural, sexually differentiated bodies and the God-given equality of intellectual potential.
Fiction, unlike the polemical works, placed the querella within dialogic frames that bring the act of debating under scrutiny while also imagining women taking active and authoritative roles as orators and writers, providing contesting images and counter narratives to those excluding women from public speech and from taking up the pen.
Allusions to the querella abound in late medieval and early modern literature. Within the horizons of expectation of their varied genres, the foundational querella texts all respond to the misalignments between gender orthodoxy and experience.
This indeterminacy did not end with the fifteenth century. The texts of the querella enjoyed a lasting cultural presence, and their influence can be clearly felt throughout the early modern period.