Continuing to use www. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. Author s : Singh, R.
Editors : Singh, R. Book : Genetic resources, chromosome engineering, and crop improvement. Vol 1: grain legumes pp. ISBN : Record Number : Location of publication : Boca Raton. Country of publication : USA. Language of text : English. Language of summary : English. Identifier s : biochemical genetics, black-eyed peas, broad beans, fava beans, field beans, green bean, green gram, horse beans, mung bean, pea, pulses, snap bean, southern peas, tic beans.
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Close Find out more. Concurrency limit. Sign out. Flowering in S. There appears to be limited differences between undomesticated species and S. Growth trial of Sorghum species at seedling stage. Note the broader leaf far left of the Eu-sorghum , S. A dash indicates that delayed onset of flowering caused the trial to be terminated before counts could be made.
The morphology of seed size and shape within the Sorghum genus varies greatly. Variation in the grain morphology of representatives of the undomesticated Heterosorghum , Para-Sorghum and Stiposorghum species have also been evaluated at the microscopic level. Mature caryopses of 13 species were critically point dried, snap fractured and examined using a Leostereoscan scanning electron microscope to determine if novel variations existed in the undomesticated species Shapter et al.
V ariation in Sorghum species seed and caryopsis morphology and size. Letters on the figure denote different species: a—e, S. The endosperm of cultivated S. The floury central endosperm Fig.
The vitreous or corneous outer endosperm Fig. Variations to the distribution and configuration of these two regions have been shown to alter the functional and putatively the nutritional value of sorghum flours and other foods Serna-Saldivar and Rooney, ; Lindeboom et al. The left-hand column shows the variation in the central endosperm and the right-hand column compares the outer layers. A, B Representative images of S. C—H Images from outside the Eu-Sorghums are representative of the variations observed across the species.
PB, Protein bodies; M, matrix; S, starch granule; D, indentations left by protein bodies; C, channels; P, pores; CG, small polygonal starch granules forming compound granules. The undomesticated Sorghum species showed varied distribution of protein bodies throughout the endosperm Fig.
Similarly, variation in the starch granule size and shape was also noted Shapter et al. Some of the undomesticated species had distinctly smaller, more spherical granules throughout the endosperm Fig. Importantly, several species showed native channelling of the starch granules and pores on their surface Fig.
Education ': ' Education ', ' III. AMV caused milder symptoms than Cucumber mosaic virus in L. Please tell a never-before-published Union with a statewide issue; sell some auditors to a various or Several Nation; or be some ia. Biological nitrogen fixation The presence of nodules is a prerequisite for nitrogen fixation, and if the colour of the nodule interior is pink this is an indicator of possible nitrogen fixation. Both crops are increasingly consumed as green vegetables in towns and cities, and use of peas and small-seeded types of faba bean for animal feed is important in rural areas Bao Shiying et al.
One species appeared to have sections of the endosperm with small rice-like starch granules, usually only seen in the sub-aleurone layer in S. Several wild species also maintained a single morphology across the entire endosperm, rather than the two layers seen in S. Amongst these differences some species retained the characteristic morphology of the S. The sub-aleurone of S. SA, Sub-aleurone layer; A, aleurone; PB, protein bodies; M, matrix,; S, starch granule; D, indentations left by protein bodies; P, pericarp; CG, small polygonal starch granules forming compound granules.
In the Para-Sorghum and Stiposorghum species examined, areas of the sub-aleurone have a striated appearance Fig. Shapter et al.
go site Investigation of these areas under high magnification showed what appeared to be a much denser protein matrix, embedded with spherical-shaped bodies reminiscent of protein bodies. Within this layer, small starch granules typical of sub-aleurone starch granules are interspersed Fig. More investigation is needed to confirm if this layer is proteinaceous.
From an adaptive point of view, the development of a highly proteinaceous layer directly below the aleurone would provide a rich nitrogen source for the germinating seedling when establishing itself in low nitrogen soils, typical of northern Australia where many of these undomesticated species are endemic. The occurrence of increased protein content in the endosperm may therefore result in a further decrease in starch digestibility which has utility for raising the glycaemic index of foods for Western diets. Modern sorghum breeding programmes have not used species outside of section Eu-Sorghum as sources of genetic diversity due to a lack of information regarding the genetic relationships between the species.
The relationships identified can now act as a guide for plant breeders. Most of the undomesticated Sorghum species fall within the tertiary genepool, making gene transfer to domesticated species very difficult due to strong sterility barriers Harlan and de Wet, The nature of the sterility barriers in Sorghum have recently been identified as pollen—pistil incompatibilities whereby the pollen of undomesticated species behaves abnormally in the pistils of S. As a result, pollen rarely grew beyond the stigma of S. The embryo of this S.
Although a hybrid embryo was formed and able to be rescued via tissue culture, pollen—pistil incompatibilities make this an extremely rare occurrence. Methods of increasing the frequency of hybridization are required to successfully utilize the undomesticated Sorghum species. This S. Hybrids between S.
The hybrid nature of these seedlings was again confirmed by the presence of genomes from both parental species that could be readily identified based upon chromosome size and number Price et al. Introgression of the undomesticated S. FISH discriminated between the chromosomes of the two parent species, and confirmed through bivalent formation and allosyndetic pairing that recombination was occurring.
Progeny of this novel hybrid when backcrossed to S.
The analysis of the amount of DNA introgressed from the undomesticated S. Kuhlman et al. The identification and use of the iap S. The potential for improving the yield productivity through these traits in commercial sorghum varieties is now a reality.
Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement: Grain Legumes, Volume I - CRC Press Book. Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement: Oilseed Crops, Volume 4 - CRC Press Book.
Sorghum bicolor , a diploid, has a relatively small genome Mbp , which although larger than rice Mbp is smaller than the other important cereals wheat 16 Mbp, maize Mbp. The last genome duplication event for the S. Completion of the whole genome sequencing project in will exponentially increase the sequence data available for Sorghum and will provide valuable information on cereal domestication in the African continent, an event that appears to have occurred independently of other continents though by similar reinforced selective pressures Paterson et al.
In a way, the sorghum genome sequencing will close a biographic triangle into the knowledge of the polymorphism shared before the divergence of these important grasses and ultimately in the understanding of the evolution in cereals crops between Africa, America and Asia Kresovich et al.